global health

A Systematic Assessment of National Under-5 Mortality Rate by Place of Residence for 109 Countries

The progress in reducing the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) since 1990 has been remarkable but uneven within countries between urban and rural populations. While trend U5MR estimates have been published frequently, an analysis of U5MR by urban and …

Systematic assessment of the sex ratio at birth for all countries and estimation of national imbalances and regional reference levels

We identify 12 countries with strong statistical evidence of SRB imbalance during 1970--2017, resulting in 45.0 (95% uncertainty interval [36.4; 54.8]) million missing female births globally. The majority of those missing female births are in China, …

Web Appendix Systematic assessment of the sex ratio at birth for all countries and estimation of national imbalances and regional reference levels

This web appendix formed part of the original submission and has been peer reviewed. The journal post it as supplied by the authors. Supplement to: Chao, F., Gerland, P., Cook, A.

National and regional under-5 mortality rate by economic status for low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic assessment

For all low-income and middle-income countries (excluding China) combined, the absolute disparities in under-5 mortality rate between the poorest and richest households have narrowed significantly since 1990, whereas the relative differences have …

Web appendix: National and regional under-5 mortality rate by economic status for low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic assessment

This web appendix formed part of the original submission and has been peer reviewed. The journal post it as supplied by the authors. Supplement to: Chao F, You D, Pedersen J, Hug L, Alkema L.

A Systematic Assessment of National, Regional and Global Levels and Trends in the Sex Ratio at Birth and Identification of Countries With Outlying Levels

We implemented Bayesian methods for probabilistic sex ratio at birth (SRB) estimation and projection for all countries based on an extensive database with data from vital registration systems, censuses, and surveys. We identified countries at risk of …

A Systematic Assessment of National, and Regional Under-Five Mortality Rate by Wealth Quintiles and Identification of Countries with Outlying Levels Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Time Series Model

National-level estimates of the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) may mask disparities at the subnational level. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical time series model to assess disparities in the U5MR by household-level socioeconomic status (measured …

A Systematic Assessment of National, Regional and Global Levels and Trends in the Sex Ratio at Birth and Identification of Countries with Outlying Levels

Under normal circumstances, the sex ratio at birth (SRB) has been reported to vary between 1.04 and 1.07. But gender discrimination and other factors associated with the SRB can result in different SRB levels. While SRB estimates have been published …

How informative are vital registration data for estimating maternal mortality? A Bayesian analysis of WHO adjustment data and parameters

Monitoring maternal mortality is challenging due to fragmented data of varying quality. The maternal mortality estimates published by the WHO in 2012 included data adjustment parameters to account for these data quality issues, but there was a …

National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment

Important differences exist between boys and girls with respect to survival up to the age of 5 years. Survival chances tend to improve more rapidly for girls compared with boys as total mortality decreases, with a reversal of this trend at very low …